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Cardiothoracic surgery Cardiothoracic surgeons specialise inthe treatment and management of diseases that occur in the organs inside thechest and in the bony structures and tissues that form the chest cavity.
Coronary artery disease is one of the most common diseasestreated by cardiothoracic surgeons. General thoracic surgeons primarily treatlung cancer and diseases of the esophagus and chest wall. Congenital heartsurgeons care for babies and children with holes between the heart chambers orabnormal connections within the heart. Listed below are some examples ofdiseases treated by cardiothoracic surgeons.
• Coronary artery disease or blockages of the arteries in the heart
• Blockages in the heart valves
• Leaking heart valves
• Abnormal enlargement or aneurysms of the large arteries in the chest
• Heart failure
• Atrial fibrillation

2) Chemical pathology Chemical pathology is the branch of pathology which dealswith the diagnosis and management of disease by use of chemicals present inbody fluids and tissues.
Typically, chemical pathologylaboratories are the largest sub-units in pathology departments and commonlyperform measurements of many different chemicals on hundreds of patient sampleseach day. Because many of these analyses are time-critical, the chemicalpathology laboratory is usually highly automated and uses complex analysersthat are capable of performing many analyses in a short time frame. Chemicalpathologists are responsible for running these laboratories, ensuring thequality of the results, and providing a diagnostic service and advice toclinicians. This requires a sophisticated knowledge of the pathophysiology ofdisease, the diagnostic value of individual tests, and also of the work of thelaboratory. A significant part of the work of the chemical pathologist entailsoral communication with clinical colleagues, and for this reason significantemphasis is put on oral communication skills both in training and in assessment

3) Anatomical pathology Anatomical pathology is the study of organs and tissues todetermine the causes and effects of particular diseases.
An anatomical pathologist’s findings are fundamental to medical diagnosis,patient management and research. Anatomical pathology involves macroscopicpathology, histopathology (the combination of these two usually being referredto as “surgical” pathology), cytopathology and morbid anatomy. Histopathologyis concerned with the microscopic examination of tissues, taken either asbiopsy samples or resection specimens. Tissues are assessed macroscopically,and material is taken for microscopic examination for the purpose of diagnosis,prognosis and directing appropriate treatment. Cytopathology is the study ofindividual cells aspirated or obtained from body fluids or tissues, includingexfoliative cytology, to detect abnormalities. Morbid anatomy is the use of theautopsy to determine cause of death and investigate both the associated and “incidental”(unrelated to cause of death) effects of drugs, toxins and disease processes onbodily organs. Anatomical pathologists work with almost all medicalspecialties, including surgeons and general practitioners, using techniquesavailable in the anatomical pathology laboratory to provide information andadvice essential to clinical practic

4) Anaesthesia 
Anaesthesia refers to the practice of administeringmedications either by injection or by inhalation that block the feeling of painand other sensations, or that produce a deep state of unconsciousness thateliminates all sensations, which allows medical and surgical procedures to beundertaken without causing undue distress or discomfort.

Relief of pain and suffering is central to the practiceof anaesthesia. Specialist anaesthetists are fully qualified medical doctorswho hold a degree in medicine and spend at least two years working in thehospital system before completing a further five years (or equivalent) ofaccredited training in anaesthesia culminating in being awarded a diploma offellowship of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA),which can be recognised by the initials FANZCA after their name. GeneralPractitioners (GP) are able to offer anaesthesia services in rural areas wherethere is no ongoing specialist cover available. It means that a generalpractitioner is able to offer this service to their community to avoid patientshaving to travel to larger regional centres to access surgery. GP anaesthesia trainingis administered by the Joint Consultative Committee on Anaesthesia (JCCA).
GPs can practice with a sub-specialty; this allows them to focus on aparticular area of medical interest. See below for further information on thetraining requirements for a sub-specialty in Anaesthesia .
5) Addiction Medicine Addiction medicine is the comprehensive care of people witha wide range of addiction disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction andpharmaceutical dependency.
Addiction medicinephysicians work collaboratively with a multidisciplinary team of clinicians toimprove health outcomes for patients.
GPs can practice with a sub-specialty; this allows them to focus on aparticular area of medical interest. See below for further information on thetraining requirements for a sub-specialty in AddictionMedicine .


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