Becoming a specialist in Australia

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Anatomical pathology is the study of organs and tissues todetermine the causes and effects of particular diseases. An anatomicalpathologist’s findings are fundamental to medical diagnosis, patient managementand research. Anatomical pathology involves macroscopic pathology,histopathology (the combination of these two usually being referred to as“surgical” pathology), cytopathology and morbid anatomy. Histopathology isconcerned with the microscopic examination of tissues, taken either as biopsysamples or resection specimens. Tissues are assessed macroscopically, andmaterial is taken for microscopic examination for the purpose of diagnosis,prognosis and directing appropriate treatment. Cytopathology is the study ofindividual cells aspirated or obtained from body fluids or tissues, includingexfoliative cytology, to detect abnormalities. Morbid anatomy is the use of theautopsy to determine cause of death and investigate both the associated and“incidental” (unrelated to cause of death) effects of drugs, toxins and diseaseprocesses on bodily organs. Anatomical pathologists work with almost allmedical specialties, including surgeons and general practitioners, usingtechniques available in the anatomical pathology laboratory to provideinformation and advice essential to clinical practic.

Anaesthesia 
Anaesthesia refers to the practice of administeringmedications either by injection or by inhalation that block the feeling of painand other sensations, or that produce a deep state of unconsciousness thateliminates all sensations, which allows medical and surgical procedures to beundertaken without causing undue distress or discomfort.
Relief of pain and suffering is central to the practice of anaesthesia.Specialist anaesthetists are fully qualified medical doctors who hold a degreein medicine and spend at least two years working in the hospital system beforecompleting a further five years (or equivalent) of accredited training inanaesthesia culminating in being awarded a diploma of fellowship of theAustralian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA), which can berecognised by the initials FANZCA after their name. General Practitioners (GP)are able to offer anaesthesia services in rural areas where there is no ongoingspecialist cover available. It means that a general practitioner is able to offerthis service to their community to avoid patients having to travel to largerregional centres to access surgery. GP anaesthesia training is administered bythe Joint Consultative Committee on Anaesthesia (JCCA).
GPs can practice with a sub-specialty; this allows them to focus on aparticular area of medical interest. See below for further information on thetraining requirements for a sub-specialty in Anaesthesia .
Addiction Medicine Addiction medicine is the comprehensive care of people witha wide range of addiction disorders, including drug and alcohol addiction andpharmaceutical dependency. Addiction medicine physicians work collaborativelywith a multidisciplinary team of clinicians to improve health outcomes forpatients.
GPs can practice with a sub-specialty; this allows them to focus on aparticular area of medical interest. See below for further information on thetraining requirements for a sub-specialty in AddictionMedicine .

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